Pasek Tangkas - Arya Tangkas Kori Agung

Om AWIGHNAMASTU NAMOSIDDHAM, Terlebih dahulu, kami haturkan pangaksama mohon maaf sebesar - besarnya ke hadapan Ida Hyang Parama Kawi - Tuhan Yang Maha Esa serta Batara - Batari junjungan dan leluhur semuanya. Agar supaya, tatkala menceriterakan keberadaan para leluhur yang telah pulang ke Nirwana, kami terlepas dari kutuk dan neraka.

 
Pura Lempuyang
Pura Lempuyang (Lempuyang temple) is located on Lempuyang Mountain, Karangasem Regency, east Bali. The Balinese Hindu’s named it Sad Khayangan Agung Lempuyang Luhur, which is the place for Hyang Iswara and Hyang Agni Jaya. Puja Wali/ piodalan (sacred day) is held every six months, exactly on Umanis Galungan, Kamis (Thursday) wuku Dungulan, or the day after the Galungan ceremony. To go to Lempuyang temple from Denpasar, it is about 80 km, a 2 hour journey to the east. Along the way, you will see beautiful scenery, rice field panoramas and rivers. Lempuyang Temple contains a lot of mysteries from a long time ago, when Sang Hyang Pasupati recommended Hyang Gni Jaya together with Hyang Putra Jaya and Dewi Danuh to save Bali from disaster. Later, according to the villagers, as well as for praying, there are also people who come to Lempuyang Temple for other purposes, such as to recover from illnesses, avoid evil, and there are even politicians or officials who pray that their authority will be forever or to try to obtain a certain position. Usually they come in the middle of night, in order to avoid the public.
Balinese Temples
JBali is sometimes called the "Island of 10.000 Temples" (or "Island of the Gods") and this is not exaggerated. First of all, every village has at least three temples: the Pura Desa, where religious festivals are celebrated, the Pura Dalem for the Goddess of Death (this is the place where the funeral cremation rites start), and the Pura Puseh that is dedicated to the Gods of Heaven. Temples are everywhere, on the mountains and in the valleys, in the ricefields (they are small shrines for the Rice Goddess), and on the seaside, and every temple is different. The Balinese religion is still very much alive. Every morning you can somewhere in Bali see small or larger groups of girls and women bringing offerings to a temple and the important festivals are celebrated by everybody with large processions to the temple that are accompanied by gamelan musicians. The Balinese religion is based on Hinduism, but incorporates a lot of pre-Hindu, animist beliefs (primarily ancestor worship). In ancient times the founder of a village was revered as a god after his death by the village people. When the Hindu princes from Java occupied Bali (see ">Short Overview of the History of Bali) their form of worshipping their dead kings as gods came very close to the old Balinese ancestor worship. The many different gods of Bali (gods of Earth, Fire, Water, and Fertility) were now all viewed as different manifestations of the Trimurti, the Hindu trinity of Brahma, Vishnu, and the destroyer/creator Shiva.
Mantram
Sacred keys and magic words to God. Many common Mantram are used in the original Sanskrit language. However it is of utmost importance to truly know and be fully aware of a Mantram's true spiritual meaning. To benefit from its true and Divine Power of freeing and healing you should know the true meaning and you should fully agree with its meaning and identify yourself with its meaning and Divine power. For that particular reason we prefer to use Mantram in your own language or a language you truly understand. The Divine power of any Mantram is completely free of the language the Mantram is used in. It is your intent - your inner attitude that frees the Divine magic power contained in every Mantram. Words are magic. Use words consciously and concentrated. Be aware of what you say and use your words - and thoughts - always with Love for the greatest spiritual result and benefit. Anything else - any other attitude - may give any different result - may be even detrimental to your spiritual goals and detrimental to your souls well-being !!! Be wise in the use of Mantram - choose the path of Love and Mantram of Love only and do it with all the power of your soul and heart to result in ONENESS in God. What ever you do with all the Divine power of your soul and heart is always enough to lead you to the final destination of ONENESS in God in Love. If at any time you put all at stake that you have, all your possession, all your power, all your Love, all you ever have created, collected, earned, including ALL your memories and turn it ALL to God with Love - in Love - then it ALWAYS is sufficient to open and pass through the door of Love to God.
Ongkara
Ongkara, or the Balinese Om, is one of the most sacred symbols in the Balinese culture, symbolising the universe and life itself.When Au Kara meets Ulu Candra, the romanization is not “Aung”, but “Om”. And the letter has a special name Ongkara This word is used almost everywhere in the text, as it is the symbol of God Himself. The most notable sentences using OM are the greetings: Om Swastiastu (May God blesses you), Om Şanti Şanti Şanti, Om (May peace be everywhere)
Gayatri Mantram
om bhur bwah swah tat sawitur warenyam bhargo dewasya dhimahi dyo yonah pracodayat
The Balinese Alphabet
Senin, 07 Juli 2008
The first version sent to Unicode experts
  • AA KARA changes name to A KARA TEDONG
  • II KARA changes name to I KARA TEDONG
  • UU KARA changes name to U KARA TEDONG
  • EE KARA changes name to AIRSANIA
  • OO KARA changes name to O KARA TEDONG
  • Adding two syllables borrowed from Javanese: CHA and KHA
  • Add new examples ‘ksatria’, ‘smerti’ and ‘stri’ to demonstrate the use of non semi-vowel as semi-vowel
  • Finally added the romanization of ULU RICEM as /m/ and its example
  • Add the abbreviation rule endorsed by the government
  • Remove the normal form of CHA, leaving only the appended/subscript form
  • Add "guwung macelek matedong" for semi-vowel RO

The Balinese script is used for writing the Balinese language, the native language of the people of Bali. It is a descendent of the ancient Brahmic script from India; therefore it has some notable similarities with modern scripts of South Asia and Southeast Asia that also are descendent of the Brahmic script. The Balinese script is also used for writing Kawi, or Old Javanese, which had a heavy influence to Balinese language in the 11th century. Some Balinese words are also borrowed from Sanskrit, thus Balinese script is also used to write words from Sanskrit.

The basic elements of the alphabet are syllables. Each syllables has inherent sound of /a/ or /ĕ/ depending of the position of the syllable within a word.

The text direction of the Balinese script is from left to right, with vowel signs attached to either before, after, below or above the syllable. Some vowel signs are split vowels, that means that they appear at more than one position to the syllable.

Character Repertoire


The Basic Syllables (Akśara Wreşāstra)

There are eighteen basic syllables that are used for writing pure Balinese language. Each syllable has an appended form, which kill the previous syllable sound. The appended form appears below the syllable that precedes it. For example, the word ‘bakta’ (translation: ‘bring’) is written as:

There are some exceptions as well, like the appended form of pa appears after the syllable that precedes it. The appended form of SA and YA appear below and after the syllable that precede them.

In Balinese, the basic syllable is called Akśara Wreşāstra. The appended form of the syllable in general is called Pangangge Akśara. The one that is hanging below is called Gantungan while the one that appears after the syllable is called Gempelan.

The Vowels (Akśara Suara)

There are twelve distinct vowel sounds in Balinese. They appear as either vowel signs attached to the syllables, or as independent letters if the word started with a vowel. If the vowels appear in the middle of a word, the vowel signs are attached to the syllable ha

Suku and suku ilut can be attached to gantungan or gempelan as well.

Tedong, ulu sari, and suku ilut are pronounced longer than their counterparts (inherent vowel, ulu, suku). It is often used for prefixing words. One example is prefix ‘ma’ + ‘adep’ becoming mādep. If it appears in the holy texts, that are meant to be recited, those vowels can be pronounced even longer than normal reading.

Semi-Vowels (Arda Suara)

The Balinese script has four semi-vowels attached to syllable: ra, wa (ua), la, ya (ia).

Please note that even the written glyph looks the same, but the pronunciations are actually different. ‘kra’ in ‘pakraman’ is pronounced faster than ‘kra’ in ‘Pak Raman’.

‘Pak Raman’ also can be legally converted to use the adegadeg sign to avoid confusion.


Semi vowels can be stacked together, with nania or suku kembung attached to guwung or gantungan la
Akśara Şwalalita

In addition to the eighteen basic syllables, there are other syllables that are used for writing Kawi (Old Javanese) language. The rule of usage is the same as the basic syllables.

Sound Killers (Pangangge Tengenan)

To end the sound of a syllable, one may add one of the signs: ardha chandra, surang, cecek, bisah, or adegadeg.

Holy Symbol Ongkara

When Au Kara meets Ulu Candra, the romanization is not “Aung”, but “Om”. And the letter has a special name Ongkara This word is used almost everywhere in the text, as it is the symbol of God Himself. The most notable sentences using OM are the greetings:

Om Swastiastu
(May God blesses you)

Om Şanti Şanti Şanti, Om
(May peace be everywhere)

Miscellaneous Syllables

There are two more syllables that apparently borrowed from Javanese. Their existence in Balinese script is very rare, but they exist. For the syllable CHA, the normal form of it does not exist. If CHA appears in a text, it is always paired with the normal form of CA

Numerals

The Balinese use decimal system for numbers. There is a simple one-to-one mapping to the Arabic digits, as shown in the following table.

Punctuations

These are some punctuations and symbols specific to the Balinese text.

Some Variation of Usages


Although the most common used characters are already listed in the previous sections, some manuscripts were using non-standard variants of the characters.

Usage of a kara as a syllable

In various texts, a kara is not always stand alone, but also paired with ulu, suku, taleng, and other vowel signs. This practice is not correct, and should not be considered valid. For any vowel sounds, there are independent vowel glyphs already available for use.

For ‘ě’ and ‘ö’ that don’t have independent vowel form, they can be written with HA as:
Pa kapal is never attached with suku or suku ilut

As a syllable, pa kapal can be paired with any vowel signs. But the shape of pa kapal is not the same with other syllables. The final stroke of pa kapal is not going down. Hence suku and suku ilutpa kapal. These combinations should still be considered, and suku or suku ilut is positioned below pa kapal but not attached to it. cannot be attached to

Romanization of the inherent sound

A stand-alone syllable has inherent sound that is always romanized as a. But it is common to a Balinese to pronounced an a at the end of a word as ĕ.

Usage of Pangangge Akśara

There are four forms of gantungan/gempelan usages:

  • Killing the inherent sound of the base syllable.

    Example word:

This form is equivalent with the one using adegadeg sign,
  • This form of gantungan/gempelan happens very rarely, when a non semi-vowel acts like a semi vowel. The term for this in Balinese is pluta.

    Example word:

As a double consonant syllable, but actually a single sound. This occurrence is called dwita.
  • Example:

It is not so nice to have adegadeg in the middle of a word, so the preferred form is always the one without the adegadeg. Sometimes the use of adegadeg is inevitable, to avoid stacking gantungangantungan altogether. and

Example of inevitable adegadeg, ‘tamblang’ (a village’s name):


Ligatures and Other Presentation Issues

Two glyphs can be written using one pen strokes, thus form what so called ligatures.

  • Tedong form ligatures with the following syllable (see table). The ligature form is desirable but not mandatory.

Alphabet Order and Sorting

Balinese alphabet is never been computerized (except for font creation that enable people to type in) so that nobody has ever devised an alphabet order or a sorting scheme.

Apart from the order of ha-na-ca-ra-ka, there is no defined order of alphabets for Balinese. But if we take a closer look at what has been done to the cousin of Balinese, the Devanagari script, and what has been arranged for Latin in ASCII, then the alphabet order should look like this:

  • Start with the punctuations (7 characters)
  • Followed by the digits (10 characters)
  • Followed by the independent vowels (10 characters)
  • Followed by the aksara biasa (basic syllable) (18 characters)
  • Followed by the aksara wayah (9 characters)
  • Followed by the vowel signs (11 characters)
  • Followed by the semi-vowel signs (4 characters)
  • Followed by the final consonant signs (5 characters)

Please note that the above order is only a proposed one, since there are no standards defined for alphabet order.

Abbreviations

Just like in other languages or scripts, long words can be abbreviated as well. There are three different scheme for abbreviations:

  • The scheme endorsed by the government to abbreviate government institutions. The scheme is to follow the way the abbrevation pronounced in Indonesian language.
  • The one used by I Wayan Simpen A.B. in his schoolbook “Purwa Aksara. The scheme is to use the first syllable with all the vowel signs attached to it; or if it is an independent vowel, then the independent vowel itself is used.
  • The one less commonly used, but somehow the shortest one.The scheme is to use only syllable or independent vowel.

For example: “Bank Pembangunan Daerah Bali” (Development Bank of Bali Province) or BPD Bali is written like this:
The abbrevation alternatives are:

1) Be Pe De

2) Ba Pe Da

3) Ba Pa Da


Word Boundaries and Line Break Rules

In Balinese script, there are no spaces to separate words.

In the old time of writing on palm leaves, spaces were scarce and the “page setup” for lontar was always a thin landscape. The number of lines is small, with every space must be filled for optimal use. There was common practice to break the sentence at any places. For modern writing, the following rules of thumb should apply:

  • No line breaks allowed between syllable and any of its signs
  • No line breaks allowed just before a colon, comma or full stop

Because there are no spaces between words, there is no such thing as a justified paragraph. A Balinese text is left aligned (the most common), right aligned, or centered.

References

  • Example of words came from book of I Wayan Simpen A.B. “Pasang Aksara Basa Bali” – published year unknown, publisher name unknown. Most probably it was published during the sixties, because it refers to the Balinese Language Congress of 1963.
  • Some example words came from book of I Wayan Simpen A.B. “Purwa Aksara” for 4th grade primary school. Publisher Upada Sastra 2002.
  • US Library of Congress has a romanization table for Balinese script. It can be downloaded from the website http://www.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/roman.html
  • Pedoman Pasang Aksara Bali, by I Nengah Medra, et. al. April 2001. Based on Balinese Language Congress of December 1997.
For Detail information please, click http://www.babadbali.com/aksarabali/alphabet-c.htm

posted by I Made Artawan @ 18.52  
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