Pasek Tangkas - Arya Tangkas Kori Agung

Om AWIGHNAMASTU NAMOSIDDHAM, Terlebih dahulu, kami haturkan pangaksama mohon maaf sebesar - besarnya ke hadapan Ida Hyang Parama Kawi - Tuhan Yang Maha Esa serta Batara - Batari junjungan dan leluhur semuanya. Agar supaya, tatkala menceriterakan keberadaan para leluhur yang telah pulang ke Nirwana, kami terlepas dari kutuk dan neraka.

 
Pura Lempuyang
Pura Lempuyang (Lempuyang temple) is located on Lempuyang Mountain, Karangasem Regency, east Bali. The Balinese Hindu’s named it Sad Khayangan Agung Lempuyang Luhur, which is the place for Hyang Iswara and Hyang Agni Jaya. Puja Wali/ piodalan (sacred day) is held every six months, exactly on Umanis Galungan, Kamis (Thursday) wuku Dungulan, or the day after the Galungan ceremony. To go to Lempuyang temple from Denpasar, it is about 80 km, a 2 hour journey to the east. Along the way, you will see beautiful scenery, rice field panoramas and rivers. Lempuyang Temple contains a lot of mysteries from a long time ago, when Sang Hyang Pasupati recommended Hyang Gni Jaya together with Hyang Putra Jaya and Dewi Danuh to save Bali from disaster. Later, according to the villagers, as well as for praying, there are also people who come to Lempuyang Temple for other purposes, such as to recover from illnesses, avoid evil, and there are even politicians or officials who pray that their authority will be forever or to try to obtain a certain position. Usually they come in the middle of night, in order to avoid the public.
Balinese Temples
JBali is sometimes called the "Island of 10.000 Temples" (or "Island of the Gods") and this is not exaggerated. First of all, every village has at least three temples: the Pura Desa, where religious festivals are celebrated, the Pura Dalem for the Goddess of Death (this is the place where the funeral cremation rites start), and the Pura Puseh that is dedicated to the Gods of Heaven. Temples are everywhere, on the mountains and in the valleys, in the ricefields (they are small shrines for the Rice Goddess), and on the seaside, and every temple is different. The Balinese religion is still very much alive. Every morning you can somewhere in Bali see small or larger groups of girls and women bringing offerings to a temple and the important festivals are celebrated by everybody with large processions to the temple that are accompanied by gamelan musicians. The Balinese religion is based on Hinduism, but incorporates a lot of pre-Hindu, animist beliefs (primarily ancestor worship). In ancient times the founder of a village was revered as a god after his death by the village people. When the Hindu princes from Java occupied Bali (see ">Short Overview of the History of Bali) their form of worshipping their dead kings as gods came very close to the old Balinese ancestor worship. The many different gods of Bali (gods of Earth, Fire, Water, and Fertility) were now all viewed as different manifestations of the Trimurti, the Hindu trinity of Brahma, Vishnu, and the destroyer/creator Shiva.
Mantram
Sacred keys and magic words to God. Many common Mantram are used in the original Sanskrit language. However it is of utmost importance to truly know and be fully aware of a Mantram's true spiritual meaning. To benefit from its true and Divine Power of freeing and healing you should know the true meaning and you should fully agree with its meaning and identify yourself with its meaning and Divine power. For that particular reason we prefer to use Mantram in your own language or a language you truly understand. The Divine power of any Mantram is completely free of the language the Mantram is used in. It is your intent - your inner attitude that frees the Divine magic power contained in every Mantram. Words are magic. Use words consciously and concentrated. Be aware of what you say and use your words - and thoughts - always with Love for the greatest spiritual result and benefit. Anything else - any other attitude - may give any different result - may be even detrimental to your spiritual goals and detrimental to your souls well-being !!! Be wise in the use of Mantram - choose the path of Love and Mantram of Love only and do it with all the power of your soul and heart to result in ONENESS in God. What ever you do with all the Divine power of your soul and heart is always enough to lead you to the final destination of ONENESS in God in Love. If at any time you put all at stake that you have, all your possession, all your power, all your Love, all you ever have created, collected, earned, including ALL your memories and turn it ALL to God with Love - in Love - then it ALWAYS is sufficient to open and pass through the door of Love to God.
Ongkara
Ongkara, or the Balinese Om, is one of the most sacred symbols in the Balinese culture, symbolising the universe and life itself.When Au Kara meets Ulu Candra, the romanization is not “Aung”, but “Om”. And the letter has a special name Ongkara This word is used almost everywhere in the text, as it is the symbol of God Himself. The most notable sentences using OM are the greetings: Om Swastiastu (May God blesses you), Om Şanti Şanti Şanti, Om (May peace be everywhere)
Gayatri Mantram
om bhur bwah swah tat sawitur warenyam bhargo dewasya dhimahi dyo yonah pracodayat
Upanishad
Kamis, 10 Juli 2008
The Upanishads (Devanagari: उपनिषद्, IAST: upaniṣad, also spelled "Upanisad") are Hindu scriptures that constitute the core teachings of Vedanta. They do not belong to any particular period of Sanskrit literature: the oldest, such as the Brhadaranyaka and ChandogyaBrahmana period (around the middle of the first millennium BCE), while the latest were composed in the mediaeval and early modern period. The Upanishads realize monist ideas, some of which were hinted at in the earliest texts, and they have exerted an important influence on the rest of Hindu and Indian philosophy. Upanishads, date to the late

The philosopher and commentator Shankara (8th century) is thought to have composed commentaries on eleven mukhya or principal Upanishads. These are generally regarded as the oldest, spanning the late Vedic and Mauryan periods. The Muktika Upanishad[1] and lists itself as the final one. Dara Shikoh (d. 1659), son of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan, translated fifty Upanishads into Persian. Max Müller (1879) was aware of 170. Sadhale, in his massive verse index (predates 1656) contains a list of 108 canonical UpanishadsUpaniṣad-vākya-mahā-kośa, has drawn on 223 different extant texts that call themselves by this name.[2] Additionally, parts of earlier texts, of Brahmanas or passages of the Vedas themselves, are sometimes considered Upanishads.

The Upanishads speak of a universal spirit (Brahman) and an individual soul, (Atman)[6] and at times assert the identity of these. Brahman is the ultimate, both transcendent and immanent, the absolute infinite existence, the sum total of all that ever is, was, or shall be. The mystical nature and intense philosophical bent of the Upanishads has led to their explication in numerous manners, giving birth to three main schools of Vedanta. Shankara's exegesis of the Upanishads does not describe Brahman as a God in the monotheistic sense; he ascribes to it no limiting characteristics, not even those of being and non-being.[citation needed] Thus, Shankara's philosophy is named advaita, "not two" as opposed to dvaita philosophy, founded by Madhvacharya, which holds that Brahman is ultimately a personal God, to be aligned with Vishnu, or Krishna (brahmano hi pratisthaham, I am the Foundation of Brahman Bhagavad Gita 14.27). The third major school of Vedanta is Vishishtadvaita, founded by Ramanujacharya is and it has some aspects in common with the other two.

The ninth chapter of the Taittiriya Upanishad says:

He who knows the Bliss of Brahman (divine consciousness)... does not distress himself with the thought "why did I not do what is good? why did I do what is evil?". Whoever knows this (bliss) regards both of these as Atman (self, soul), indeed he cherishes both as Atman. Such, indeed, is the Upanishad, the secret knowledge of Brahman.

The key phrase of the Upanishads, to Advaita Vedanta, is तत् त्वं अिस "Tat Tvam Asi" (That thou art). Vedantins believe that in the end, the ultimate, formless, inconceivable Brahman is the same as our soul, Atman. We only have to realize it through discrimination. (However, interpretations of this phrase differ.)[7] Verses 6, 7 & 8 of Isha Upanishad:

Whoever sees all beings in the soul and the soul in all beings...
What delusion or sorrow is there for one who sees unity?
It has filled all. It is radiant, incorporeal, invulnerable...
Wise, intelligent, encompassing, self-existent,
It organizes objects throughout eternity.

The Upanishads also contain the first and most definitive explications of the divine syllable Aum or OM, the cosmic vibration that underlies all existence. The mantra "Aum Shanti Shanti Shanti" (the soundless sound, peace, peace, peace)is often found in the Upanishads.

[edit] List of Upanishads

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[edit] "Principal" Upanishads

The following list includes the eleven "principal" (mukhya) Upanishads commented upon[2] by Shankara, and accepted as shruti by most Hindus. Each is associated with one of the four Vedas (Rigveda (ṚV), Samaveda (SV), White Yajurveda (ŚYV), Black Yajurveda (KYV), Atharvaveda (AV));

  1. Aitareya (ṚV)
  2. Bṛhadāraṇyaka (ŚYV)
  3. Taittirīya (KYV)
  4. Chāndogya (SV)
  5. Kena (SV)
  6. Īṣa (ŚYV)
  7. Śvetāśvatara(KYV)
  8. Kaṭha (KYV)
  9. Muṇḍaka (AV)
  10. Māṇḍūkya (AV)
  11. Praśna (AV)

The Kauśītāki and Maitrāyaṇi Upanishads are sometimes added. All these date from before the Common Era. From linguistic evidence, the oldest among them are the Bṛhadāraṇyaka and Chāndogya Upanishads. The Jaiminīya Upaniṣadbrāhmaṇa, belonging to the late Vedic Sanskrit period, may also be included. Of nearly the same age are the Aitareya, Kauṣītaki and Taittirīya Upaniṣads, while the remnant date from the time of transition from Vedic to Classical Sanskrit.

The older Upanishads are associated with Vedic Charanas, Shakhas or schools; the Aitareya and Kauśītāki Upanishads with the Shakala shakha, the Chāndogya Upanishad with the Kauthuma shakha, the Kena Upanishad with the Jaiminiya shakha, the Kaṭha Upanishad with the Caraka-Katha shakha, the Taittirīya and Śvetāśvatara Upanishads with the Taittiriya shakha, the Maitrāyaṇi Upanishad with the Maitrayani shakha, the Bṛhadāraṇyaka and Īṣa Upanishads with the Vajasaneyi Madhyandina shakha, and the Māṇḍūkya and Muṇḍaka Upanishads with the Shaunaka shakha.

In the Muktika Upanishad's list of 108 Upanishads the first 10 are grouped as mukhya "principal". 21 are grouped as Sāmānya Vedānta "common Vedanta", 23 as Sannyāsa, 9 as Shākta, 13 as Vaishnava, 14 as Shaiva and 17 as Yoga Upanishads.[8] [9]

[edit] Shakta Upanishads

Later Upanisads are often highly sectarian: this was "one of the strategies used by sectarian movements to legitimate their own texts through granting them the nominal status of Śruti."[10] For the most part, the canonical Shakta Upanishads are sectarian tracts reflecting doctrinal and interpretative differences between the two principal sects of Srividya upasana (a major Tantric form of Shaktism). As a result, the many extant listings of "authentic" Shakta Upanisads vary in content, reflecting the sectarian bias of their compilers:

"Past efforts to construct lists of Shakta Upanisads have left us no closer to understanding either their 'location' in Tantric tradition or their place within the Vedic corpus. [...] At stake for the Tantric is not the authority of sruti per se, which remains largely undisputed, but rather its correct interpretation. For non-Tantrics, [it is a text's] Tantric contents that brings into question its identity as an Upanisad. At issue is the text's classification as sruti and thus its inherent authority as Veda." [11]

Of the texts listed in the Muktika Upanishad nine are classified as Shakta Upanishads:

  1. Sītā (AV)
  2. Annapūrṇa (AV)
  3. Devī (AV)
  4. Tripurātapani (AV)
  5. Tripura (RV)
  6. Bhāvana (AV)
  7. Saubhāgya (RV)
  8. Sarasvatīrahasya (KYV)
  9. Bahvṛca (RV)

The list excludes several notable and widely used Shakta Upanisads, including the Kaula Upaniṣad, the Śrīvidyā Upaniṣad and the Śrichakra Upaniṣad.

[edit] References

  1. ^ Sris Chandra Sen (1937). The Mystic Philosophy of the Upanishads. General Printers \& Publishers. Chapter: VEDIC LITERATURE AND UPANISHADS. p. 19: "..according to the Vedas to which they are supposed to belong, ... The muktika list of 108 upanishad is as follows:"
  2. ^ S. Gajanan Shambhu Sadhale, Sri Garibdass Oriental Series, no. 44. (Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications, 1987).
  3. ^ Arthur Anthony Macdonell. A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary. p. 53.
  4. ^ Stanislaw Schayer. Die Bedeutung des Wortes Upanisad. Rocznik Orientalistyczny 3,1925, 57-67)
  5. ^ Monier-Williams. A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. p. 201. [1] Web version accessed 1 April 2007.
  6. ^ Smith 10)
  7. ^ Tat tvam asi in Context. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft 136, 1986, 98-109
  8. ^ ".:SAKSIVC: Vedic Literature: Upanishads: 108 Upanishads:.". www.vedah.com. Retrieved on 2008-04-26.
  9. ^ Translated by Dr.A.G.Krishna Warrier. "Muktika Upanishad". TheTheosophicalPublishingHouse,Chennai. Retrieved on 2008-04-26.
  10. ^ Holdrege 1996, p. 7,426n
  11. ^ Brooks, Douglas Renfrew, The Secret of the Three Cities: An Introduction to Hindu Shakta Tantrism, The University of Chicago Press (Chicago, 1990), pp. 13-14.

[edit] Further reading

  • Edmonds, I.G. Hinduism. New York: Franklin Watts, 1979.
  • Eknath Easwaran Upanishads, Nilgiri Press, 2007, ISBN 9781586380212
  • Embree, Ainslie T., ed. The Hindu Tradition. New York: Random House, 1966.
  • Holdrege, Barbara A. (1995), Veda and Torah, Albany: SUNY Press, ISBN 0791416399
  • Merrett, Frances, ed. The Hindu World. London: MacDonald and Co, 1985.
  • Pandit, Bansi. The Hindu Mind. Glen Ellyn, IL: B&V Enterprises, 1998.
  • Smith, Huston. The Illustrated World’s Religions: A Guide to Our Wisdom Traditions. New York: Labrynth Publishing, 1995.
  • Wangu, Madhu Bazaz. Hinduism: World Religions. New York: Facts on File, 1991.

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