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Om AWIGHNAMASTU NAMOSIDDHAM, Terlebih dahulu, kami haturkan pangaksama mohon maaf sebesar - besarnya ke hadapan Ida Hyang Parama Kawi - Tuhan Yang Maha Esa serta Batara - Batari junjungan dan leluhur semuanya. Agar supaya, tatkala menceriterakan keberadaan para leluhur yang telah pulang ke Nirwana, kami terlepas dari kutuk dan neraka.

 
Pura Lempuyang
Pura Lempuyang (Lempuyang temple) is located on Lempuyang Mountain, Karangasem Regency, east Bali. The Balinese Hindu’s named it Sad Khayangan Agung Lempuyang Luhur, which is the place for Hyang Iswara and Hyang Agni Jaya. Puja Wali/ piodalan (sacred day) is held every six months, exactly on Umanis Galungan, Kamis (Thursday) wuku Dungulan, or the day after the Galungan ceremony. To go to Lempuyang temple from Denpasar, it is about 80 km, a 2 hour journey to the east. Along the way, you will see beautiful scenery, rice field panoramas and rivers. Lempuyang Temple contains a lot of mysteries from a long time ago, when Sang Hyang Pasupati recommended Hyang Gni Jaya together with Hyang Putra Jaya and Dewi Danuh to save Bali from disaster. Later, according to the villagers, as well as for praying, there are also people who come to Lempuyang Temple for other purposes, such as to recover from illnesses, avoid evil, and there are even politicians or officials who pray that their authority will be forever or to try to obtain a certain position. Usually they come in the middle of night, in order to avoid the public.
Balinese Temples
JBali is sometimes called the "Island of 10.000 Temples" (or "Island of the Gods") and this is not exaggerated. First of all, every village has at least three temples: the Pura Desa, where religious festivals are celebrated, the Pura Dalem for the Goddess of Death (this is the place where the funeral cremation rites start), and the Pura Puseh that is dedicated to the Gods of Heaven. Temples are everywhere, on the mountains and in the valleys, in the ricefields (they are small shrines for the Rice Goddess), and on the seaside, and every temple is different. The Balinese religion is still very much alive. Every morning you can somewhere in Bali see small or larger groups of girls and women bringing offerings to a temple and the important festivals are celebrated by everybody with large processions to the temple that are accompanied by gamelan musicians. The Balinese religion is based on Hinduism, but incorporates a lot of pre-Hindu, animist beliefs (primarily ancestor worship). In ancient times the founder of a village was revered as a god after his death by the village people. When the Hindu princes from Java occupied Bali (see ">Short Overview of the History of Bali) their form of worshipping their dead kings as gods came very close to the old Balinese ancestor worship. The many different gods of Bali (gods of Earth, Fire, Water, and Fertility) were now all viewed as different manifestations of the Trimurti, the Hindu trinity of Brahma, Vishnu, and the destroyer/creator Shiva.
Mantram
Sacred keys and magic words to God. Many common Mantram are used in the original Sanskrit language. However it is of utmost importance to truly know and be fully aware of a Mantram's true spiritual meaning. To benefit from its true and Divine Power of freeing and healing you should know the true meaning and you should fully agree with its meaning and identify yourself with its meaning and Divine power. For that particular reason we prefer to use Mantram in your own language or a language you truly understand. The Divine power of any Mantram is completely free of the language the Mantram is used in. It is your intent - your inner attitude that frees the Divine magic power contained in every Mantram. Words are magic. Use words consciously and concentrated. Be aware of what you say and use your words - and thoughts - always with Love for the greatest spiritual result and benefit. Anything else - any other attitude - may give any different result - may be even detrimental to your spiritual goals and detrimental to your souls well-being !!! Be wise in the use of Mantram - choose the path of Love and Mantram of Love only and do it with all the power of your soul and heart to result in ONENESS in God. What ever you do with all the Divine power of your soul and heart is always enough to lead you to the final destination of ONENESS in God in Love. If at any time you put all at stake that you have, all your possession, all your power, all your Love, all you ever have created, collected, earned, including ALL your memories and turn it ALL to God with Love - in Love - then it ALWAYS is sufficient to open and pass through the door of Love to God.
Ongkara
Ongkara, or the Balinese Om, is one of the most sacred symbols in the Balinese culture, symbolising the universe and life itself.When Au Kara meets Ulu Candra, the romanization is not “Aung”, but “Om”. And the letter has a special name Ongkara This word is used almost everywhere in the text, as it is the symbol of God Himself. The most notable sentences using OM are the greetings: Om Swastiastu (May God blesses you), Om Şanti Şanti Şanti, Om (May peace be everywhere)
Gayatri Mantram
om bhur bwah swah tat sawitur warenyam bhargo dewasya dhimahi dyo yonah pracodayat
Early Modern Periode
Kamis, 10 Juli 2008
In the 16th to 18th centuries, Hindu history is mainly characterized by opposition to Islam (and to Christianity, in Kerala). The Mughal Empire reduced its Hindu subjects to Dhimmitude throughout the 17th century; the empire had reached its zenith by 1700. But, Hinduism once again rose to political prestige, under the Maratha Empire, from 1707 to 1761.

In the century from 1760 to 1860, India was once more divided into numerous petty and unstable kingdoms: the Sikh Confederacy; the "lesser Mughals" following Bahadur Shah I; the Kingdom of Mysore; Hyderabad State; the Durrani Empire; and the territories held by the British East India Company. The entire subcontinent fell under British rule (partly indirectly, via Princely states) following the Indian Rebellion of 1857.

Mughal India

Further information: Mughal period

The official State religion of the Mughal Empire was Islam, with the preference to the jurisprudenceHanafi Madhab (Mazhab). However, throughout its history, subjects had complete freedom to practice any religion of his choice, though Non-Muslim able-bodied adult males with income were obliged to pay the Jizya (poll-tax), signifying their status as Dhimmis. of the

After the invasion of Persia by the Mongol Empire, a regional Turko-Persio-Mongol dynasty formed. Just as eastern Mongol dynasties inter-married with locals and adopted the local religion of Buddhism and the Chinese culture, this group adopted the local religion of Islam and the Persian culture. One of Akbar's most unusual ideas regarding religion was Din-i-Ilahi (Faith of God), which was an eclectic mix of Islam, Zoroastrianism, Hinduism, Jainism and Christianity. It was proclaimed the state religion until his death. These actions however met with stiff opposition from the Muslim clergy, especially the Sufi Shaykh Alf Sani Ahmad Sirhindi. Akbar's abolition of poll-tax on non-Muslims, acceptance of ideas from other religious philosophies, toleration of public worship by all religions and his interest in other faiths showed an attitude of considerable religious tolerance, which, in the minds of his orthodox Muslim opponents, were tantamount to apostasy.

The emperor Jahangir was also a religious moderate, his mother being Hindu. The influence of his two Hindu queens (the Maharani Maanbai and Maharani Jagat) kept religious moderation as a center-piece of state policy which was extended under his son, emperor Shah Jahan, who was by blood 75% Rajput and only 25% Moghul.

Religious orthodoxy would only play an important role during the reign of Shah Jahan's son and successor, Aurangzeb, a devout Sunni Muslim. Aurangzeb was comparatively less tolerant of other faiths than his predecessors had been, and his reign saw an increase in the number and importance of Islamic institutions and scholars. He led many military campaigns against the remaining non-Muslim powers of the Indian subcontinent - the Sikh states of the Punjab, the last independent Hindu Rajputs and the Maratha rebels - as also against the Shia Muslim kingdoms of the Deccan.

Early colonialism

Further information: Christianity in India and Goa Inquisition

Portuguese missionaries had reached the Malabar Coast in the late 15th century, made contact with the St Thomas Christians in Kerala and sought to introduce the Latin Rite among them. Since the priests for St Thomas Christians were served by the Eastern Christian Churches, they were following Eastern Christian practices at that time. Throughout this period, foreign missionaries also made many new converts to Christianity. This led to the formation of the Latin Catholics in Kerala.

The Goa Inquisition was the office of the Inquisition acting in the Indian city of Goa and the rest of the Portuguese empire in Asia. St. Francis Xavier, in a 1545 letter to John III, requested for an Inquisition to be installed in Goa. It was installed eight years after the death of Francis Xavier in 1552. Established in 1560 and operating until 1774, it was aimed primarily at Hindus and wayward new converts.

Maratha Empire

Further information: Maratha Empire The Hindu Marathas long had lived in the Desh region around Satara, in the western portion of the Deccan plateau, where the plateau meets the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats mountains. They had resisted incursions into the region by the Muslim Mughal rulers of northern India. Under their leader Shivaji, the Maratha freed themselves from the Muslim sultans of Bijapur to the southeast, became much more aggressive and began to frequently raid Mughal territory, sacking the wealthy Mughal port of Surat in 1664. Shivaji was proclaimed 'Chatrapati' (Emperor) in 1674. The Marathas had spread and conquered much of central India by Shivaji's death in 1680.

British Raj

Main article: Hindu revivalism
Further information: Bengal Renaissance, Brahmo Samaj, Arya Samaj, and Ramakrishna Math

1909 Prevailing Religions, Map of British Indian Empire, 1909, showing the prevailing majority religions of the population for different districts.

During the 19th century, Hinduism developed a large number of new religious movements, partly inspired by the European Romanticism, nationalism, scientific racism and esotericism (Theosophy) popular at the time (while conversely and contemporaneously, India had a similar effect on European culture with Orientalism, "Hindoo style" architecture, reception of Buddhism in the West and similar).

These reform movements are summarized under Hindu revivalism and continue into the present.

An important aspect of 20th-century Hinduism has been its spread among non-Indians, who have accepted the religion voluntarily. This perhaps began with the sojourn of Vivekananda to the World Parliament of Religions in Chicago in 1893. He founded the Ramakrishna Mission, which today operates temples, ashrams, charitable hospitals, and schools worldwide.

Modern Hinduism and contemporary world

Modern Hinduism is the reflection of continuity and progressive changes that occurred in various traditions and institutions of Hinduism during the 19th and 20th centuries. Its main divisions are into Vaishnavism (largely influenced by Bhakti), Shaivism, Shaktism and Smartism (Advaita Vedanta).

Besides these traditional denominations, movements of Hindu revivalism look to founders such as Swami Vivekananda, Swami Dayananda (Arya Samaj), Rabindranath Tagore, Ramana Maharshi, Aurobindo, Shriram Sharma Acharya, Swami Sivananda, Swami Rama Tirtha, Narayana Guru, Paramhansa Yogananda, Shrii Shrii Anandamurti, Pandurang Shastri Athavale (Swadhyay Movement) and others.

Influential in spreading Hinduism to a western audience were A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada (Hare Krishna movement), Sri Aurobindo, Meher Baba, Jiddu Krishnamurti, Osho, Maharishi Mahesh Yogi (Transcendental Meditation), Sathya Sai Baba, Mother Meera, among others.

The Hindutva movement advocating Hindu nationalism originated in the 1920s and has remained a strong political force in India. The major party of the religious right, Bharatiya Janata Party, since its foundation in 1980 has won several elections, and after a defeat in 2004 remains the leading force of opposition against the current Congress Party government.

The resurgence of Hinduism in Indonesia is occurring in all parts of the country. In the early seventies, the Toraja people of Sulawesi were the first to be identified under the umbrella of 'Hinduism', followed by the Karo Batak of Sumatra in 1977 and the Ngaju Dayak of Kalimantan in 1980.

The growth of Hinduism has been driven also by the famous Javanese prophesies of SabdapalonJayabaya. Many recent converts to Hinduism had been members of the families of Sukarno's PNI, and now support Megawati Sukarnoputri. This return to the 'religion of Majapahit' (Hinduism) is a matter of nationalist pride. and

The new Hindu communities in Java tend to be concentrated around recently built temples (pura) or around archaeological temple sites (candi) which are being reclaimed as places of Hindu worship. An important new Hindu temple in eastern Java is Pura Mandaragiri Sumeru Agung, located on the slope of Mt. Semeru, Java's highest mountain. Mass conversions have also occurred in the region around Pura Agung Blambangan, another new temple, built on a site with minor archaeological remnants attributed to the kingdom of Blambangan, the last Hindu polity on Java, and Pura Loka Moksa Jayabaya (in the village of Menang near Kediri), where the Hindu king and prophet Jayabaya is said to have achieved spiritual liberation (moksa). Another site is the new Pura Pucak Raung in East Java, which is mentioned in Balinese literature as the place from where Maharishi Markandeya took Hinduism to Bali in the fifth century CE.

References

  1. ^ (Basham 1967)
  2. ^ "Hindu History".
  3. ^ Clark, Sharri R. The social lives of figurines: recontextualizing the third millennium BC terracotta figurines from Harappa, Pakistan. Harvard PhD 2007
  4. ^ Flood (1996), pp. 28-29.
  5. ^ Marshall, Sir John, Mohenjo Daro and the Indus Civilization, London 1931
  6. ^ For translation of paśupati as "Lord of Animals" see: Michaels, p. 312.
  7. ^ For a drawing of the seal see Figure 1 in: Flood (1996), p. 29.
  8. ^ Singh, S.P., Rgvedic Base of the Pasupati Seal of Mohenjo-Daro, Puratattva 19: 19-26. 1989
  9. ^ Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark. Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilization. Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1998.
  10. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica online edition s.v. "Vedic religion".
  11. ^ Indo-Iranian Studies: I by J.C. Tavadia, Vishva Bharati, Santiniketan, 1950
  12. ^ (RV 8.5; 8.46; 8.56)
  13. ^ Staal, J. F. 1961. Nambudiri Veda Recitations Gravenhage.
  14. ^ Staal, J. F. 1983. Agni: The Vedic ritual of the fire altar. 2 vols. Berkeley.
  15. ^ Staal, Frits (1988). Universals: studies in Indian logic and linguistics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-76999-2.
  16. ^ "Srimad-Bhagavatam" by A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, Bhaktivedanta Book Trust.
  17. ^ sanatansociety.org
  18. ^ Ron Geaves (March 2002). "From Totapuri to Maharaji: Reflections on a Lineage (Parampara)". 27th Spalding Symposium on Indian Religions, Oxford.
  19. ^ Vijay Nath, From 'Brahmanism' to 'Hinduism': Negotiating the Myth of the Great Tradition, Social Scientist 2001, pp. 19-50.
  20. ^ Ram Puniyani. Question of Faith.
  21. ^ Peter van der Veer, "Religious Nationalism: Hindus and Muslims in India", University of California Press, February 7, 1994, ISBN 0-520-08256-7

See also

References

  1. Majumdar, R. C.; H. C. Raychauduri, Kaukinkar Datta (1960). An Advanced History of India. Great Britain: Macmillan and Company Limited. ISBN 0-333-90298-X.
  2. Benjamin Walker Hindu World: An Encyclopedic Survey of Hinduism, (Two Volumes), Allen & Unwin, London, 1968; Praeger, New York, 1968; Munshiram Manohar Lal, New Delhi, 1983; Harper Collins, New Delhi, 1985; Rupa, New Delhi, 2005, ISBN 81-291-0670-1.

External links

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